Q: I keep hearing about pH balanced shampoo? What does pH mean?
A: The term "pH" originates from the French term 'pouvoir hydrogen' (or Hydrogen
Power) and has since been expressed as "parts hydrogen". pH refers to the amount of
hydrogen ions found in a substance. It's the amount of hydrogen ions present in a
substance that determines the acidity or alkalinity of that substance.
pH levels are expressed on a logarithmic scale with a range of "0" to "14" with
numbers closer to "0" as more acidic and closer to "14" as more alkaline. A pH of "7" is
neutral - distilled water has a pH of 7. Some everyday substances and their pH levels
are: lemon juice, pH 2.2; vinegar, pH 3; baking soda, pH 8.4; ammonia, pH 12.
Each whole number on the scale represents an increase or decrease in acidity or
alkalinity by a factor of 10, thus, ammonia is over 1000 times more alkaline than
baking soda, and lemon juice is almost 10 times more acidic than vinegar.
Alkalis and acids have different effects on the hair. Acids will harden and contract
the hair, while alkalis expand and soften the hair shaft. Hair and skin has a pH level of
between 4.5 and 5.5 (an average of 5), and any application of acidic and alkaline
compounds can raise or lower the pH levels of the hair causing physical changes.
Shampoos, conditioners and other chemical hair products use acids and alkalis to affect changes in the hair.
Many clarifying shampoos use alkaline ingredients to swell the hair shaft and allow
the surfactants to penetrate more deeply. Most hair relaxers use a strong alkali to
soften the hair, break the side bonds of the hair and remove curl. In addition, many
conditioners and moisturizing shampoos use acidic compounds to contract the hair shaft,
smoothing it and locking in moisture.
As an example of the effects of pH, consider the fact that distilled water which is
pH neutral (7.0) is 100 times more alkaline than hair, and can swell the hair by as much as 20 percent.