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A Guide To Permanent Waves (2)

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       Note: All acid waves have three components: a waving solution, an activator, and a neutralizer. The activator contains the agent Glyceryl Monothioglycolate (GMTG) and should be considered carefully before deciding to use an Acid Wave since repeated exposure to GMTG is known to cause allergic sensitivity in both stylists and clients.
 
Acid-Balanced Waves
 
        Because of the level of added effort and difficulty in processing a True Acid wave, the strength and pH of acid waves has been increased over the years to allow for easier, and simpler processing. Most acid waves found in salons today have a pH of between 7.8 and 8.2 which isn’t truly acidic. These are now called Acid-Balanced Waves.
 
       In addition to speeding up the processing and allowing for the wave to process at room temperature, and without the need for use of a hair dryer to provide added heat. Acid-balanced waves create firmer curl results that a true acid wave. They are great for use with hair that is porous and possibly damaged because they are gentler than most alkaline waves.
 
       Note: All acid waves have three components: a waving solution, an activator, and a neutralizer. The activator contains the agent Glyceryl Monothioglycolate (GMTG) and should be considered carefully before deciding to use an Acid Wave since repeated exposure to GMTG is known to cause allergic sensitivity in both stylists and clients.
 
Exothermic Waves
 
       An exothermic wave is called thus because of the chemical reactions involved in the waving process. An exothermic chemical reaction produces heat, and an Exothermic Wave uses exothermic chemical reactions to produce heat as a way to speed up the processing time of the permanent wave. Exothermic waves have three components (like acid waves): waving solution, activator and neutralizer. The waving solution contains thio just as in a cold wave and the activator contains an oxidizing agent (usually hydrogen peroxide). Combining the two creates a rapid release of heat and an increase in the temperature of the solution. The increased temperature increases the rate of the chemical reactions in the hair and shortens the required time to process the curl.
 
       Exothermic waves are good for coarse, thick and/or resistant hair types, typically process faster than alkaline waves and create firm, strong curls. However, like an alkaline perm, exothermic waves can damage delicate hair and often has a strong, unpleasant ammonia odor.
 
Endothermic Waves
 
       An Endothermic Wave is the counter-point to the Exothermic wave. Where the exothermic wave generates its own heat using a specific type of chemical reaction, the Endothermic Wave utilizes reactions that absorb the heat from its surroundings. This means that they are only activated by an outside heat source – typically a conventional hooded hair dryer.
 
       As is obvious, most True-Acid waves are endothermic, but not all endothermic waves are “true” acid waves.
 
Ammonia-Free Waves
 
       Ammonia-Free waves use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia, so there is very little odor associated with their use. One common substitute for ammonia is an alkanolamine, such as aminomethylpropanol and monoethanolamine. These ammonia-free waves generally process the same as standard alkaline waves but since the substitutes for the ammonia don’t evaporate as readily as ammonia, there is typically very little odor associated with their use.
 
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